An analysis of the change of chewing gum and bubble gum over the past 150 years

Additional Information Abstract This essay is a business and cultural history of Wrigley marketing in North America from the s until the early s.

An analysis of the change of chewing gum and bubble gum over the past 150 years

The method includes introducing chewing gum ingredients and gum base into an extruder and extrusion mixing the ingredients with the gum base over a distance to provide a substantially homogeneous chewing gum mass. The mass is also cooled over the distance so that a chewing gum slab is provided which is suitable for rolling and scoring or extruding into a rope without a separate cooling step.

In particular, the invention relates to a method for continuous chewing gum production using extrusion apparatus.

The batch method of producing chewing gums has long been considered the standard for producing chewing gums on a commercial scale. Such methods, however, tend to be labor intensive and produce chewing gums of varying consistency.

The batch process typically requires using large kettles for the extensive mixing and kneading of a gum base and plasticizers into a viscous melt. Thereafter, softeners and bulking agents such as sugars or sugar alcohols are added to the molten mass with stirring.

Chewing gum timeline | Timetoast timelines

The chew-ing gum mass is thereafter cooled and then later rolled, scored and wrapped into the final product. The above described method often required multiple mixing steps and transferral of the gum mass from various production apparatus and work areas until the final product was completed.

Further, since the batch process was unmechanized, the various mixing and kneading steps required the continuous input of the chewing gum artisan to determine when ingredients were to be added to the batch.

These initial attempts, however, had several shortcomings. For example, these patents disclose methods using a single entry port for the ingredients and subjecting all of the ingredients to plasticizing temperatures throughout an extrusion process before allowing a gum slab to exit.

While providing continuous output of a chewing gum slab, these methods proved to be unacceptable. Continuous heating of the gum ingredients and the single entry port caused opportunities for delicate ingredients such as flavor oils to "flash off" or degrade due to the prolonged exposure to high temperatures and considerable pressure throughout the extrusion process.

This method, like the earlier methods described, suffers from using a single entry port for introducing the gum ingredients.

The extended period of heat exposure and pressure build-up which can detract from the organoleptic qualities of the resulting gum remained.

In addition, the cooling of the chewing gum slabs is accomplished by depositing the molten chewing gum material on a conveyer belt maintained under water for the greater part of its 3 length.

The ability to precisely locate crucial points for the addition of temperature sensitive materials such as flavor oils is not disclosed. According to this method, a chewing gum paste is formed by continuously introducing into a first feed port of an extruder pelletized gum base, corn syrup, a portion of granulated sugar, plasticizer and coloring ingredients.

The remaining sugar is then continuously introduced into a second port just past the first feed port. Flavoring ingredients are not added until at least about three-quarters of the length of the extruder from the feed end to minimize the amount of time the flavoring ingredients are exposed to the heat of the extruder.

After exiting from the extruder through a coat hanger-type die, the gum paste slab is quickly cooled before being passed through calendar rolls to adjust the thickness of the gum paste slab. Thus, wh le providing for selective and timed addition of some ingredients, the extensive cooling of the gum paste slab remained outside of the extruder as shown in prior art methods.

Such cooling, however, can be uneven and variations in the cooling rate are known to result in adverse textural qualities of the final product. Accordingly, none of the related art describes a method for the continuous preparation of a chewing gum slab from chewing gum ingredients in the absence of requiring a separate cooling step.

A need, therefore, exists for a method of continuously producing chewing gum slabs which do not require a separate cooling step once the slab has exited from the extruder. It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide an improved method for the continuous preparation of chewing gum slabs for producing a chewing gum product in the absence of requiring a separate cooling step after the gum slab has exited the extruder.

Other objects will be apparent from the disclosure set forth herein.

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The method includes introducing chewing gum ingredients and gum base into an extruder at a distance from each other sufficient to prevent unwanted back flow of the gum base which creates unwanted hot spots and discontinuities in the chewing gum product. In particular, the method provides for introducing the chewing gum ingredients into the extruder through the entry port furthest from the extruder exit port and extruding the ingredients with preferably a liquid gum base in the barrel of the extruder along with, if desired, a coloring agent.

Depending upon the desired final product, sweeteners and texturizers such as corn syrup may be added prior to or after the gum base has been introduced in the extrusion process. A flavor may also be added, preferably close to the exit port of the extruder barrel.

The above ingredients are then extrusion mixed over a distance to provide a substantially homogeneous chewing gum mass. The chewing gum mass is also cooled over this distance to provide a chewing gum slab which can be rolled and scored or further extruded into a rope for cutting and wrapping in the absence of separate cooling.

Key to the method of the present invention, however, is the combination of the ability to control the temperature drop of the gum mass in the extruder barrel and the length of the barrel itself. The combination of travel time during extrusion while exposing the ingredients to cooler barrel temperatures allows a sufficient temperature drop so that the extruded gum exits the extruder barrel ready for rolling, scoring and wrapping.

An analysis of the change of chewing gum and bubble gum over the past 150 years

As a result of the present invention, an improved method for continuously preparing a chewing gum slab for producing a gum product is provided. By selectively adding the more sensitive ingredients at precise locations along the extrusion process, the integrity of the sensitive ingredients is preserved.

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Further, by incorporating the flavor ingredients during movement of the chewing gum ingredients through cooler zones of the extruder, the flavor ingredients are less likely to "flash" or degrade and residence time of the flavors within the extruder barrel is minimized.

Unlike other methods using extrusion apparatus for mixing chewing gum ingredients, the current method does not contain a reverse mixing element or a plug.Both bubble gum and chewing gum are normally sweetened and many companies add a type of flavouring to their gum.

The main flavour chewing gum is mint, but it’s possible to find flavours such as watermelon and liquorice. Chew on These Bubble Gum Facts!

By Lydia Lukidis Here is a riddle for you. People love to chew gum.

Fleer Corp. v. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., F. Supp. (E.D. Pa. ) :: Justia

In fact, people around the world have been chewing gum for thousands of years. But have you ever wondered how gum is made?

You may not believe this, but gum comes from trees. describe how you would change modern day bubble gum to . 95 kids did not chew bubble gum and did not have tooth decay Write a null hypothesis, draw a 2x2 table, calculate the appropriate odds ratio and Interpret results Null: There is no association between bubble gum chewing and tooth decay.

An analysis of the change of chewing gum and bubble gum over the past 150 years

Abstract This essay is a business and cultural history of Wrigley marketing in North America from the s until the early s.

Wrigley relied on wholesalers at a time when consumer goods makers were expanding their sales forces. Chewing gum, a popular treat, has been around for a very long time. Archaeologists say that prehistoric men and women chewed on lumps of tree resin just for enjoyment.

Chewing gum does not break down over time and so the deposits gradually accumulate. Pounded smooth by pedestrians, discarded chewing gum debris thus forms the dominant decoration of the urban floor, a soot-black snot speckled across asphalt or paving stones’ shades of grey.

Chewing gum - Wikipedia