Why must new roots formed by the pericycle originate in the center of the root? What structure in this figure is responsible for primary growth? It is possible to tell a young eudicot from a monocot by the structure of the stem.
Priority has therefore been given to a range of measures for run-off and soil erosion control. One such measure, the use of stone bunds built on natural contour lines, has been promoted and supported by governments, NGOs, extension agents and farmers for more than 25 years and is now widely used in the Sahel.
The best results are often achieved when contour stone bunds are used in combination with the planting of grass and trees on the contour lines. In wetter years they help to reduce the climate-induced risk of run-off and erosion.
In drier years, they contribute to effective rainwater harvesting.
In addition, since heavy rainfall events in the Sahel are projected to increase with global warming, durable and effective soil erosion control structures will assume even greater importance and constitute an important adaptation measure.
Impacts and lessons learned Region-wide, it is estimated that aboutha of land has been reclaimed. However, contour stone bunds are labour intensive and costly. However, this required the quarrying and transport of 2. Nevertheless, they have proven to be both highly effective and durable and often act as a catalyst for additional innovations such as tree or grass planting on the bunds, as well as increased levels of nutrient inputs on field crops.
Neither practices based solely on mineral fertilizers nor solely on organic matter management are sufficient for sustainable agricultural production.
Well-adapted, disease- and pest-resistant germplasm is necessary to make efficient use of available nutrients. Good agronomic practices - in terms of planting dates, planting densities, and weeding - are essential for ensuring the efficient use of scarce nutrient resources.
In addition to these principles, ISFM recognizes the need to target nutrient resources within crop rotation cycles, preferably including legumes, thus going beyond recommendations for single crops.
What's more, a positive synergistic effect between organic and inorganic inputs is often observed. As a result, the efficiency of rainfall-use is greatly enhanced. IFSM advocates strategic timing and placement when using inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers, often at rates that are much lower than recommendations based on the sole use of inorganic fertilizers.
This contributes to mitigation through reduced nitrous oxide emissions. For example, in Malawi, about 30, farmers, as well as several hundred farmer associations and agricultural extension workers, have been trained in ISFM technologies Nyasimi et al.
However, for widespread adoption to occur, an enabling environment must be created through: Governments that acts as enablers for fertilizer imports. An effective extension service, able to deliver the technology to the farmers.
A vibrant agro-dealer private sector that ensures efficient fertilizer and seed availability and distribution.
This is necessary due to the variability that exists between farms.
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