By Kimberly Scholefield Kleinman and Elizabeth Wasson The patient reclining on a couch is the archetypal symbol of psychoanalysis. People who are familiar with child analysis know that the child patient expresses fantasies and thoughts through play and action. With adolescents, psychoanalytic treatment takes place at an in between stage, so some adolescents use play and action, and some adolescents may intermittently elect to lie on the couch. Mainly, adolescent treatment takes place face to face and the analyst talks with the teen about what he or she is passionate about.
Karger Publishing, Reviewed By: Gregg Johns, Winterpp. The authors met in Basel, Switzerland, during Januaryon the 60th anniversary of Dr. Additional manuscript contributors include: Manuscript commentaries are provided by: Although this text totals pages in length, Psychoanalysis in Childhood and Adolescence provides a wealth of concise information spanning a broad range of topics.
Research findings and clinical discussions explore issues in child development, play therapy assessment and techniques, feminine object relations and triadification, pre-verbal emotional development, the role of illness and medical interventions on child psychological development, inpatient treatment of traumatized children and adolescents, unresolved late adolescent concerns, mentalization in child psychoanalysis, and the role of compensation and pain in psychic development.
Von Klitzing reminds the reader that the reality of analysis lies in observation and reconstruction of psychic development. This is akin to longitudinal research in that psychic developmental history is reconstructed through analyzing past correlates to dysfunction in the present.
Clinical observations of the interactions of child behavior and those of the caregiver are emphasized to provide insights for reconstruction ofthis development. The hypothesis of Parallel Distributed Processing PDP is presented as evidence for the contributions of complex nonsymbolic computations to developmental cognitive processing.
These nonsymbolic components underlie language and symbolism and are more intuitive and implicit in nature. This system becomes integrated with symbolic systems as development progresses. This integrates the growing body of developmental research and knowledge with that of current analytical research and practice.
Emotion schemas are formed from early representations of self in relation to others. This phenomena is established through repetition of affective states consisting of sensory, visceral, and motoric elements and may occur in consciousness or within the unconscious.
The analyst is encouraged to explore these pre-verbal and nonsymbolic elements in process of reconstructing development. Von Klitzing provides a compelling longitudinal case example, which follows the development of a boy from prenatal parental affective states and attitudes through pre-Oedipal and Oedipal triadification followed by attachment and separation issues.
A study is described in which mothers, seeking consultation on behalf of their infants, are given an option of choosing either psychodynamic or interactional guidance treatment approaches.
The mothers were provided with descriptions of each treatment modality and were referred for treatment based upon their preferences.
Cramer presents data indicating discrepancies between patient perceptions and those of therapists regarding the process and outcome of therapy.
She provides descriptive thumbnail sketches of play behaviors characteristic of youngsters with autistic, psychotic, borderline, narcissistic, conduct, and trauma disorders.
Kernberg also presents a compelling case study of a 4 year-old boy with separation anxiety through ten sessions of play therapy. This chapter provides an appealing read for the student and seasoned play therapist alike. It presents a modern perspective on the progression of play therapy in a style reminiscent of Winnicott and Axline On a personal note, I have assigned this chapter as required reading for my current class of pre-doctoral interns and highly recommend it to all engaged in play therapy.
Phyllis Tyson provides a compelling exploration of the unique developmental conflicts encountered in the mother-child relationship for females in Love and Hate and Growing Up Female. For girls, the mother serves as both primary object and a source of gender identification and self-regulation.
Tyson describes the separation-individuation process for girls as having no clear metaphorical analogy as with the Oedipal complex in boys.
The separation-individuation process is different for girls in that ambivalence is experienced with both the pursuit of intimacy with the mother and the need for establishment of autonomy.
If she can absorb some of the ambivalence and rage and help the toddler find adaptive ways of expressing these affects as well as ways of complying with certain of her demands, she can maintain a sense of safety. The child wishes to be feminine like her mother, but also has needs to develop her own identity.
Tyson further describes how pathological reaction formations and narcissistic entitlement can develop as defense mechanisms if the child fails to develop adaptive emotional regulation.
These conflicts are resolved if the mother can help the young child negotiate her separation-individuation struggles through balancing of feelings of love with those of anger.
In Psychic and Somatic Expressions of Preverbal Loss, Peter Blos presents a case example of a child adopted at thirteen months and referred for therapy at four and a half years of age.
Loss of familiar persons, belongings or surroundings occurring before language is available, is expressed behaviorally and somatically in tension discharge.
Blos describes how these conflicts can be manifested during toilet training, drive expression, fantasy and defenses. This is truly a fascinating case! Anna Freud outlined the process a child undergoes to make sense of the experience of his or her illness and develop adaptive coping mechanisms.
Miller indicates that some children exhibit increased maturity following an illness while others return to a previously established level of functioning. However, for other children, prolonged illness may have a more dramatic impact on development and personality formation.
Annette Streeck-Fischer provides a discourse on psychoanalytically derived inpatient treatment strategies for children and adolescents. Developmental trauma involving abuse, neglect, maltreatment are discussed in terms of the impairments to self-regulation of psychic, neurological, and biological systems and corresponding behavioral problems.
The special problems with concealment, dissociation, and blocking as defenses for managing trauma are addressed. These youngsters often experience difficulties with verbalizing or mentalizing their recall of the traumatic events which gives rise to heightened arousal, emotional states, and often dissociation.Psychoanalysis (along with Rogerian humanistic counseling) is an example of a global therapy (Comer, , p.
) which has the aim of helping clients to bring about a major change in their whole perspective on benjaminpohle.com: Saul Mcleod. Recognizing common symptoms of childhood sexual abuse can help parents, caregivers, teachers, social workers, counselors and childcare staff alert the appropriate authorities and take proper steps.
Psychoanalysis in Childhood and Adolescence comprises a collection of manuscripts and commentaries by an international panel of noted child and adolescent clinicians and academicians who re-examine the current role of psychoanalysis for this population.
The authors met in Basel, Switzerland, during January , on the 60th anniversary of Dr. In examining what lies beneath the surface of human behavior, psychoanalysis teaches us about the unconscious psychological forces within us outside of everyday awareness. Psychoanalysis, in providing multi-layered and multi-dimensional explanations, seeks to understand complexity.
People who are familiar with child analysis know that the child patient expresses fantasies and thoughts through play and action. With adolescents, psychoanalytic treatment takes place at an in between stage, so some adolescents use play and action, and some adolescents may intermittently elect to lie on the couch.
Abstract. This article takes a psychoanalytic, philosophical and socio-linguistic approach to the understanding of the short and long term socio-emotional effects of child and adolescent migrations.