March 26,National University of Singapore Credit:
Overview Cryptography in the era of quantum computers The private communication of individuals and organizations is protected online by cryptography. Cryptography protects our information as it travels over and is stored on the internet—whether making a purchase from an online store or accessing work email remotely.
Our research and engineering work focuses on how private information and communications will be protected when more powerful computers, such as quantum computers, which can break that cryptography are available. Existing public-key Quantum cryptography is based on the difficulty of factoring and the difficulty of calculating elliptic curve discrete logarithms.
Because those two problems will be readily and efficiently solved by a sufficiently large-scale quantum computer, we are looking now at cryptography approaches that appear to be resistant to an attacker who has access to a quantum computer.
Our work is open, open-source, and conducted in collaboration with academic and industry partners. The goal is robust, trusted, tested and standardized post-quantum cryptosystems.
Any new cryptography has to integrate with existing protocols, such as TLS. A new cryptosystem must weigh: The size of encryption keys and signatures The time required to encrypt and decrypt on each end of a communication channel, or to sign messages and verify signatures, and The amount of traffic sent over the wire required to complete encryption or decryption or transmit a signature for each proposed alternative.
The proposed cryptosystems also requires careful cryptanalysis, to determine if there are any weaknesses that an adversary could exploit. The work of developing new cryptosystems that are quantum-resistant must be done openly, in full view of cryptographers, organizations, the public, and governments around the world, to ensure that the new standards emerging have been well vetted by the community, and to ensure that there is international support.
Add to all that the fact that someone could store existing encrypted data and unlock it in the future once they have a quantum computer, and our task becomes even more urgent.
Our team is working with academia and industry on four candidates for cryptography systems that can both withstand quantum computer capabilities, while still working with existing protocols. We have been working on two collaborations for key exchange, and one for signatures, as well as providing code in support of a second signature system.
Pursuing multiple candidates is also appropriate as the post-quantum cryptography field is young, and many years of cryptanalysis are needed to determine whether any post-quantum proposal is secure.Cryptography in the era of quantum computers. The private communication of individuals and organizations is protected online by cryptography.
Cryptography protects our information as it travels over and is stored on the internet—whether making a purchase from . with | 0 〉 and | 1 〉 two reference qubits, corresponding to two orthogonal states in a quantum system. The qubits | 0 〉 (α = 1, β = 0) and | 1 〉 (α = 0, β = 1) may be thought of as the quantum equivalent of the bits 0 and 1, benjaminpohle.com other values of α and β, we say that the qubit contains a superposition of | 0 〉 and | 1 〉.For instance, the .
Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum benjaminpohle.com of , this is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently strong hypothetical quantum computer.
Quantum cryptography uses our current knowledge of physics to develop a cryptosystem that is not able to be defeated - that is, one that is completely secure against being compromised without. An article in Nature reviewing developments in quantum cryptography describes how we can keep our secrets secret even when faced with the .
Quantum cryptography uses physics instead of mathematics to encode messages, which provides greater security. Learn about quantum cryptography.