This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus' first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating.
If only they would realize!
But those people are not bad — they are simply native to the next thing, perhaps, and they experience the world slightly differently. And so the world turns. When I mentioned that I supposed this curmudgeonly sentiment against progress was common all throughout history, some commenters pointed me to the Phaedrusa Socratic dialogue of around B.
Their trust in writing, produced by external characters which are no part of themselves, will discourage the use of their own memory within them. You have invented an elixir not of memory, but of reminding; and you Reaction paper on socrates your pupils the appearance of wisdom, not true wisdom, for they will read many things without instruction and will therefore seem to know many things, when they are for the most part ignorant and hard to get along with, since they are not wise, but only appear wise.
Socrates He who thinks, then, that he has left behind him any art in writing, and he who receives it in the belief that anything in writing will be clear and certain, would be an utterly simple person, and in truth ignorant of the prophecy of Ammon, if he thinks written words are of any use except to remind him who knows the matter about which they are written.
Socrates Writing, Phaedrus, has this strange quality, and is very like painting; for the creatures of painting stand like living beings, but if one asks them a question, they preserve a solemn silence.
And so it is with written words; you might think they spoke as if they had intelligence, but if you question them, wishing to know about their sayings, they always say only one and the same thing. And every word, when once it is written, is bandied about, alike among those who understand and those who have no interest in it, and it knows not to whom to speak or not to speak; when ill-treated or unjustly reviled it always needs its father to help it; for it has no power to protect or help itself.
Now tell me; Reaction paper on socrates there not another kind of speech, or word, which shows itself to be the legitimate brother of this bastard one, both in the manner of its begetting and in its better and more powerful nature?
Phaedrus What is this word and how is it begotten, as you say? Socrates The word which is written with intelligence in the mind of the learner, which is able to defend itself and knows to whom it should speak, and before whom to be silent.
Phaedrus You mean the living and breathing word of him who knows, of which the written word may justly be called the image. Now tell me this. Would a sensible husbandman, who has seeds which he cares for and which he wishes to bear fruit, plant them with serious purpose in the heat of summer in some garden of Adonis, and delight in seeing them appear in beauty in eight days, or would he do that sort of thing, when he did it at all, only in play and for amusement?
Would he not, when he was in earnest, follow the rules of husbandry, plant his seeds in fitting ground, and be pleased when those which he had sowed reached their perfection in the eighth month? Phaedrus Yes, Socrates, he would, as you say, act in that way when in earnest and in the other way only for amusement.
Socrates And shall we suppose that he who has knowledge of the just and the good and beautiful has less sense about his seeds than the husbandman? Phaedrus By no means. Socrates Then he will not, when in earnest, write them in ink, sowing them through a pen with words which cannot defend themselves by argument and cannot teach the truth effectually.
Socrates lays out an argument that the written word cannot defend itself in dialogue, and thus cannot effectively teach anything worth knowing.
For only through banter, through back-and-forth discussion and rhetorical argument and the working out of problems, can true knowledge be conveyed.
Reading mere words, in his mind, is akin to looking at a lake rather than swimming in it — or worse, looking at a lake and thinking that now you know how to swim. Plato the transcriber of this dialogue expounds further on the concept in his Seventh Epistle: After much effort, as names, definitions, sights, and other data of sense, are brought into contact and friction one with another, in the course of scrutiny and kindly testing by men who proceed by question and answer without ill will, with a sudden flash there shines forth understanding about every problem, and an intelligence whose efforts reach the furthest limits of human powers.
Therefore every man of worth, when dealing with matters of worth, will be far from exposing them to ill feeling and misunderstanding among men by committing them to writing… Anyone who has followed this discourse and digression will know well that, if Dionysios or anyone else, great or small, has written a treatise on the highest matters and the first principles of things, he has, so I say, neither heard nor learnt any sound teaching about the subject of his treatise; otherwise, he would have had the same reverence for it, which I have, and would have shrunk from putting it forth into a world of discord and uncomeliness.
Dionysios here is Dionysios the Younger of Syracuse, a brutal tyrant, who has written a treatise on philosophy. In a way this is an argument very similar to that of Trithemius against the printing press — that a perceived flattening or automating of a form necessarily involves a loss; that truth whether it be philosophy or Scripture is best consumed and absorbed experientially.
I think this is a great sentiment and one worth considering even now. Interestingly, the speech-vs-text argument appears again in the s, but in reverse: This is a particular problem in the case of business transactions that may end up in court, and also, curiously, in the rarefied world of railroad switching, where track orders are routinely communicated ahead of a train by an army of telegraph operators.
Luckily for the telephone, smart people were on hand with sure-fire solutions: The objection made to the telephone in comparison with the telegraph, that there would be no written record, is answered by Mr.The Genocide of the Trail of Tears - The Trail of Tears is the collected routes in which Native Americans were forcibly removed from their traditional homes east of the Mississippi River to the newly established "Indian Territories" in the west (Strickland ).
From March to September, the Dennis Rawlins page on Wikipedia was trashed repeatedly by the sort of dirty-fighter censors which establishments traditionally use to discourage exposure of what they're ever-hiding. How to Mark a Book. By Mortimer J.
Adler, Ph.D. From The Saturday Review of Literature, July 6, You know you have to read "between the lines" to get the most out of anything. I want to persuade you to do something equally important in the course of your reading.
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I think Socrates has a bit more valid of a point than a lot of the other ‘this new confangled thing is bad’. I certainly think books are awesome, but they haven’t been able to completely replace teachers in the many years they’ve been around. It was one of the rules which, above all others, made Doctor Franklin the most amiable of men in society, "never to contradict anybody." If he was urged to announce an opinion, he did it rather by asking questions, as if for information, or by suggesting doubts.