C N Trueman "The Bolsheviks" historylearningsite. The History Learning Site, 22 May
Lenin wanted members "who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means  and by personal participation in one of the party's organisations". Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations". Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a smaller core of active members as opposed to " card carriers " who might only be active in party branches from time to time or not at all.
This active base would develop the cadre, a core of " professional revolutionaries ", consisting of loyal communists who would spend most of their time organising the party toward a mass revolutionary party capable of leading a workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy.
|Bolsheviks | benjaminpohle.com||Closely identified with its leader and founder, Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; —the Bolsheviks sought to take political and intellectual leadership of a revolutionary movement that would use the mass organization of workers to overthrow the autocratic government of the Romanov dynasty. The movement gathered momentum in the s with the acceleration of Russian industrialization.|
|Bolsheviks revolt in Russia - HISTORY||The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature.|
A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin's steadfast opinion and unwillingness to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own". It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia that caused the party split. Lenin was seen even by fellow party members as being so narrow minded that he believed that there were only two types of people: In Germany, the book was published in In Russia, strict censorship outlawed its publication and distribution.
After the proposed revolution had successfully overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power to allow socialism to fully encompass the nation.
Lenin also wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful.
Lenin said that if professional revolutionaries did not maintain control over the workers, then they would lose sight of the party's objective and adopt opposing beliefs, even abandon the revolution entirely.
For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, but in his utopian society there would still be visible distinctions between those in politics and the common worker. Most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral and were loyal to the idea of a completely classless societytherefore Lenin's variations caused the party internal dissonance.
Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks would not become official untilthe differences originally began to surface with the publication of What Is To Be Done?.
Through the influence of the book, Lenin also undermined another group of reformers known as "Economists", who were pushing for economic reform while wanting to leave the government relatively unchanged and who failed to recognize the importance of uniting the working population behind the party's cause.
Lenin wanted to nationalize to aid in collectivization whereas Plekhanov thought worker motivation would remain higher if individuals were able to maintain their own property. Those who opposed Lenin and wanted to continue on the Marxist path towards complete socialism and disagreed with his strict party membership guidelines became known as "softs" while Lenin supporters became known as "hards".
Sympathizers would be left outside and the party would be organised based on the concept of democratic centralism. Martov, until then a close friend of Lenin, agreed with him that the core of the party should consist of professional revolutionaries, but he argued that party membership should be open to sympathizers, revolutionary workers and other fellow travelers.
The two had disagreed on the issue as early as March—Maybut it was not until the Congress that their differences became irreconcilable and split the party.
For example, Lenin's insistence on dropping less active editorial board members from Iskra or Martov's support for the Organizing Committee of the Congress which Lenin opposed, the differences grew and the split became irreparable.
Origins of the name[ edit ] The two factions were originally known as "hard" Lenin's supporters and "soft" Martov's supportersbut the terminology soon changed to "Bolsheviks" and "Mensheviks", from the Russian bolshinstvo "majority" and menshinstvo "minority".
Neither Lenin nor Martov had a firm majority throughout the Congress as delegates left or switched sides. At the end, the Congress was evenly split between the two factions.
From on, English language articles sometimes used the term "Maximalist" for "Bolshevik" and "Minimalist" for "Menshevik", which proved confusing since there was also a "Maximalist" faction within the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party in — which after formed a separate Union of Socialists-Revolutionaries Maximalists and then again after Total membership was 8, in13, in and 46, by 8, 18, and 38, for the Mensheviks.
Byboth factions together had fewer than 10, members. The founder of Russian Marxism, Georgy Plekhanovwho was at first allied with Lenin and the Bolsheviks, parted ways with them by Trotsky at first supported the Mensheviks, but he left them in September over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
He remained a self-described "non-factional social democrat" until Augustwhen he joined Lenin and the Bolsheviks as their positions assembled and he came to believe that Lenin was right on the issue of the party.In October, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd, and on November the Bolshevik-led Red Guards deposed the Provisional Government and proclaimed soviet rule.
Led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin, leftist revolutionaries launch a nearly bloodless coup d’État against Russia’s ineffectual Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks and their. Jun 30, · Overview of the Bolshevik Revolution and the end of the Romanov Dynasty.
 Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power, p.  Trotsky, History of the Russian Revolution, p.  Cited in Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power, p. Jun 30, · Overview of the Bolshevik Revolution and the end of the Romanov Dynasty. The History Learning Site, 22 May 7 Sep The intellectuals in the movement, Lenin resigned from ‘Iskra’ and resisted all the attempts that were made to mend the Bolshevik-Menshevik split. The Bolsheviks financed their work by party supported robberies – .
History of the Bolshevik Party, from its inception until the October Revolution. Available from Wellred in paper copy and as an ebook 'Bolshevism: The Road to Revolution' is a comprehensive history of the Bolshevik Party, from its early beginnings through to the seizure of power in October This important work was first published in.
By April , the split between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks had become permanent.
The Bolshevik hierarchy held a meeting in London to decide what to do next, whereas the Mensheviks, as if to emphasise the split, held a meeting at the same time – but in Geneva, Switzerland.
No Menshevik went to London and no Bolshevik went to Geneva.  Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power, p.  Trotsky, History of the Russian Revolution, p.  Cited in Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power, p.